Given below are the sanskrit names of some of the common diseases and some common terms used in Ayurveda. The english definition or corresponding english name of the disease is also given.

Sanskrit Names of Diseases in Ayurveda, its English Meaning/Definition

Atisara Diarrhea
Arocaka Anorexia or absence of appetite
Asmari Urinary stones (kidney stones)
Atulyagotriya Embryology
Chardi Vomiting
Grahani Small intestine (grabbing) also used synonymously w/ulcers
Guhyaroga Diseases of the female reproductive organs
Hidhma Hiccups
Hasti Meha Urine is passed continuously, mixed with lasika (lymph) - Vata type diabetes insipidus
Hrdroga Heart disease (pain) (includes angina pectoris and myocardial infarcts as specific types
Iksu Meha Typical Type 2, adult onset, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (kapha type)
Kasa Cough
Kasa Roga Bronchitis
Krimi Parasites
Madhu Meha Urine resembles honey and is sweet; Type 1, juvenile, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Vata type)
Mutrakrcchra Dysuria (painful urination)
Mutraghata Conditions that cause diminished urination
Nashta-Rakta Amenorrhea
Pratysyaya Common Cold (a syndrome as opposed to a specific disease)
Prameha Conditions that cause excessive urination; (Polyuria and Diabetes)
Purvarupa Early signs and symptoms (Prodromal)
Rajayaksmadi Tuberculosis; literally "King of disease syndromes" that which follows many diseases and leads to many others
Raktasthivi Sanniat Pneumonia
Rakta Meha Urine is blood red
Rakta pradhara Subset of rakta pitta or excessive bleeding
Rakta Capa Vriddhi Hypertension
Roga Disease (that which gives rise to pain
Rupa Clinical signs and symptoms (point of Dx)
Samprapti Pathogenesis
Sannipattika Imbalance in all three doshas
Svasa Dyspnea (difficulty breathing, respiratory distress)
Tamaka Svasa Bronchial asthma
Trisna (TRSNA) Thirst
Udara Abdomen
Udavarta Belching (upward moving air)
Upasaya Diagnostic test (via Tx) (that which gives comfort)
Udaka Meha Kapha type diabetes insipidus (ADH is not manufactured)
Vata-Slaishmika Jwara Influenza (because VATA element in all cases of influenza) "Fever"
Vrikka Shotha Inflammation of the kidney or nephritis (type of Mutraghata or urinary retention syndrome
Vajikarana Aphrodisiac, reproductive system tonic, that which supports the reproductive system Atarva Ovum
Vata Vyadhi Disease of the nervous system
Yoni Vyapat Vaginal disorders (20 listed in the Ashtanga Hrdayam)