One of the largest glands of the endocrine system; thyroid gland located in the neck not only activates the body's response mechanism to various energy resources but also manages body's sensitivity to various hormones. Its function which also encompasses the manufacture of protein is aided and abetted by two principal hormones secreted by it. Controlled in its hormone manufacture by thyroid stimulating hormone; the usual diseases associated with thyroid are either a) hyper activity of the gland or b) under performance of the same. There may be yet another mal functioning condition where first there is the overproduction of thyroid gland with the excess secretion of T3 and T4 to be followed by its subsequent underproduction. Such a case generally takes place immediately after delivery.

Types of diseases related to Thyroid

  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Both hyper and hypothyroidism may give way to goiter.
  • Hyperthyroidism giving way to hypothyroidism soon after delivery.
  • Nodular occurrences in thyroid.
  • Cancer of the thyroid gland.

Causes of Hyperthyroidism

  • It is caused by the excess production of the major thyroid hormones of T3 and T4 also referred to as the triiodthyronine and thyroxin.
  • Autoimmune disorders marked by the production of antibodies may also lead to the over performance of the thyroid gland.
  • Stimulation of the anti bodies may compel the thyroid to produce excess of the mentioned hormones.
  • Hyperthyroidism is also caused when thyroid gland secretes its hormone without abiding by the instructions of thyroid stimulating hormone located in the pituitary.

Causes of Hypothyroidism

  • Autoimmune disorders can also make the thyroid gland underperform.
  • Deficiency of iodine by the human anatomy can also lead to the underperformance of the thyroid glands.
  • Removal of the thyroid glands can also usher in its underperformance.
  • People suffering from diabetes, hepatitis and rheumatoid arthritis are more prone to developing hypothyroidism.
  • It can also be congenital in nature.
  • 'Postpartum thyroditis' where there is hyperthyroidism succeeded by its opposite counterpart is generally genetic in cause.

Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism

  • Being afflicted with hyperthyroidism, one may be afflicted with goiter presenting an enlarged inflammation of the neck.
  • The afflicted person may be presenting the symptoms of bulging eyes apart from an increased pulse beat or palpitation.
  • Sweating, muscular weakness, loss of weight and diarrhea may also be manifested on account of hyperthyroidism.
  • Elderly folks suffering from hyperthyroidism may be prone to pain in chest.
  • The ones already suffering from cardiac ailment may come under spells of gasping.

Symptoms of Hypothyroidism

  • In contrast to the weight loss of hyperthyroidism; hypothyroidism is marked by the gain of weight.
  • It may lead to the loss of hair giving way to baldness.
  • Patients may give way to swings of mood giving way to mood irritability.
  • Both hyper and hypothyroidism may give way to the formation of goiter. While hyperthyroidism may give way to toxic goiter; hypothyroidism may give way to non toxic goiter.
  • Hypothyroidism among infants and children may give way to excessive fatigue and conditions of jaundice.
  • Children may be susceptible to poor performance in school.
  • Both adults and children may slacken in their intellectual ability.
  • Women suffering from hypothyroidism are prone to having irregular menstrual periods.

Diagnoses of Thyroid

  • Blood test is the most common regimen with regard to the test of thyroid.
  • The test of thyroid function through blood test involves the measurement of 'serum thyrotropine'.
  • It also involves the measurement of free thyroxin and that of serum triiodothyronine.
  • Scan of the thyroid gland whereby image study of thyroid gland is resorted to after consuming a little bit of radioactive iodine also highlights the condition of the thyroid gland.
  • Microscopic study of the thyroid tissue also helps in the diagnoses of cancer.
  • By way of ultra sonography size of the thyroid gland can be assessed apart from throwing light on the number and frequency of nodules.

Treatment of Hyperthyroidism

  • Formula based on beta blockers is used to deal with hyperthyroidism. By inhibiting the body's response to heightened activity of the concerned gland; the disease is brought under control.
  • The drugs call for effective administration and management, with patient having to be dosed after every eight hours.
  • Administration of iodine through radioactive process is also carried out to deal with hyperthyroidism.

Treatment of Hypothyroidism

  • Hypothyroidism call for hormone therapy whereby patients are administered 'levothyroxine'.
  • The hormone given in form of 'levothyroxine' continues throughout his life.
  • It is worth mentioning that any case of thyroid malfunction requires immediate medical guidance and care and as such self medication should be avoided.

Self care and natural treatment for Thyroid

  • While herbal options and natural remedial options involving yoga and dietary means are in existence; there is no proven track record to confirm their effectiveness. On the other hand, self care involving natural or herbal supplements may prove to be disastrous. So they should not be administered without the prior consultation of physicians.