Parkinson's disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that occurs due to the death of the dopamine generating cells located in the substantial nigra which is a region of the mid brain. The cause of the death of these cells is still unknown. This disease is named after an English doctor Mr. James Parkinson's who published the first detailed description of this disease in his report titled "An Essay on the Shaking Palay" in the year-1817.

April-11 (The birthday of James Parkinson) is observed for creating awareness about this disease through public awareness campaigns and using a red tulip as the symbol of this disease. The main motor symptoms affected by this disease are collectively called the Parkinsonism or a "parkinsonian syndrome".

This disease results in the progressive loss of the muscle control that leads to the trembling of limbs and the heads while at rest and other features include slowness, impaired balance and stiffness in body. With the worsening of these symptoms, the individual afflicted with Parkinson's disease may not be able to perform his/her day to day activities like walking, talking and completion of simple tasks.

Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease

The main symptoms of Parkinson's disease are concerned with voluntary and involuntary motor functions of the human body that usually starts on one side of the body. Usually the symptoms are mild in the beginning stages and later on have severe effects on the body. Some persons are more affected than the others are. However, some of the features of the primary motor symptoms include the following ones:

  1. Rigidity – It is marked by the stiffness of the trunk and limbs that may increase during movement and may produce pain or muscle aches.
  2. Tremors - Tremors are a common phenomenon of this disease that is visible in the form of trembling in fingers, arms, feet, hands, head or jaw.
  3. Postural instability – Lost refluxes or impairment may create difficulties in maintaining a posture in order to remain in a balanced physical state.
  4. Bradikeninesia – In this case, the individual suffers from slowness of voluntary movement.
  5. Parkinsonian gait – Persons suffering from Parkinson's disease show a different walking style that shuffles when they walk and their body is in a hunched position. The arm swing is quite diminished and it lacks momentum.
The secondary symptoms of Parkinson's disease is mostly includes the after effects of the Parkinson's Disease that may consist of-
  1. Anxiety, insecurity, and stress symptoms
  2. Depression
  3. Constipation
  4. Male erectile dysfunction
  5. Memory loss or dementia, confusion in case of elderly people