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Research has found that adults who are suffering from allergies may have suffered at least one type of allergy or the other in their childhood or is hereditary. The most common types of allergies found in children can be classified under the following heads and these are:

  1. Childhood Asthma :One of the common allergic diseases is asthma that is also one of the leading causes of school absences among children in most of the countries. Asthma occurs due to inflammation of the lungs and airway passage in the human body. Even to this day the exact cause of asthma remains mysterious or unknown and there is also no proper cure for children suffering from asthma. However, effective drugs are being developed every year and using these drugs is providing some relief to the effected children.

    The main symptoms of asthma in children include
    1. Cough at night or when laughing or doing exercises
    2. Feeling breathlessness
    3. Wheezing- A whistling or squeaky sound
    4. Chest tightness

    The various treatment options available for asthma include anti-inflammatory medications for controlling asthma through inhaled corticosteroids taken as early as possible and as directed by the physician. Other anti-inflammatory medications include the nedocromil and cromolyn. or a combination therapy that include the long acting inhaled or oral bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids.

  2. Allergic rhinitis –"Hay Fever" :The most common allergic disease that frequent occurs in children is the allergic rhinitis or Hay Fever and it may occur at any time of the year and is not a seasonal disease. But as guessed by the wording Hay Fever, this allergic disease do not cause any fever in children. Symptoms of allergic rhinitis in children include :
    • Itchy and running nose
    • Sneezing, nasal congestion, post nasal drip
    • Watery discharge from eyes and the eyes may turn reddish in color
    • Chronic ear problems

    The treatment options available for allergic rhinitis or hay fever mostly consist of treatment through drugs that are approved for children. The drugs that are usually given to children in case of allergic rhinitis include antihistamines in tablet or liquid form and other possible treatments include steroid nasal sprays.

  3. Atopic dermatitis/eczema :This type of allergic disease is most common in children is the atopic dermatitis or eczema which is commonly known term. This type of allergic disease occurs in about 20 percent of children. Eczema along with hives is most common type of skin allergy is caused by allergic reaction due to plants like poison ivy, food, medication or some illness. Symptoms of atopic dermatitis are:
    • Skin becoming red, irritated and itchy
    • Small fluid bumps on the skin that is small and bumps that ooze
    • Rash, itching, blisters on the skin

    The treatment options available for atopic dermatitis for children includes the application of atopic based creams and emollients, potent topical corticosteroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, bandages, phototherapy, Systematic therapy that can be used for mild, moderate to severe atopic eczema.

  4. Food allergies :Food allergies normally occur in babies and children. Food allergies occur when the body's immunity system attacks a specific food or food substances treating them as allergens and causing blood vessels to swell up, the smooth muscles to contrast and the skin areas becomes red, swollen and itchy. The most common food items that cause severe allergy in children include tree nuts, peanuts, shellfish, some dairy products, shrimps etc. The symptoms of food allergies in children are:
    • Severe infantile eczema or skin rashes
    • Diarrhea & Vomiting
    • Low blood pressure
    • Wheezing & Cramps
    Treatment for food allergies in children involves avoiding consumption of food that is causing allergic reaction in the concerned child. Where the parent is breast feeding the child then the mother must avoid the food in her diet that is responsible for food allergy in the child. Small amounts of food allergens are transmitted to the child through the breast milk and cause food allergies. For children having severe food reaction, the physician may prescribe medications that contain epinephrine.
  5. Drug Allergies :Drug allergies due to certain drugs that are either injected or orally consumed may result in drug allergies among children. It is estimated that less than 25% of all adverse drug reactions are due to drug allergies. These drug allergies include any side effects in the form of allergy in certain drugs such as penicillin, amoxicillin and other antibiotic drugs. The drug allergy in children may result in life threatening anaphylaxis. The usual treatment procedure in such cases is to prescribe antidotes of that particular drug that has resulted in allergic reactions in that particular child.
Thus, the above-mentioned allergies that are found in children require immediate action on the part of the parents or the guardian in order to avoid any further complications on the health of the concerned child.